I. Introduction

II. ONAC'S Activities in Noise Effects Research and Criteria

III. Physical Properties and Measurement of Sound

A. Physical Properties
B. Instrumentation
C. Measurement and Descriptors

IV. Noise in America

A. Population Trends

B. Noise Sources

1. Road traffic noise
2. Aircraft noise
3. Noise from railroads
4. Construction noise
5. Noise in industry
6. Noise in buildings
7. Noise from consumer products

C. Numbers of People Exposed to Noise

D. Summary: Noise in America

V. Effects of Noise

A. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss

1. Extent of noise-induced hearing loss from environmental sources
2. The handicap of noise-induced hearing loss
3. The study of noise-induced hearing loss
4. Risk of hearing impairment from continuous noise
5. Varying and intermittent noise
6. Impulse noise
7. Susceptibility
8. Interactions with other agents
9. Hearing protectors
10. Summary: Noise-induced hearing loss

B. Interference With Communication

1. Prediction of speech interference
2. Criteria for speech and warning signals
3. The effect of hearing protectors on speech and warning signal perception
4. Scholastic performance
5. Summary: Interference with communication

C. Effects of Noise on Sleep

1. Assessing sleep disturbance
2. Criteria for sleep interference
3. After-effects and habituation
4. Summary: Effects of noise on sleep

D. Effects on Performance and Behavior

1. Sensory and motor effects
2. Noise variables
3. Task variables
4. After-effects
5. Effects of noise on social behavior
6. Summary: Effects on performance and behavior

E. Extra-Auditory Health Effects

1. Theoretical basis
2. Effects on blood pressure
3. Effects on blood chemistry
4. Interactions
5. Other adverse effects
6. Summary: Extra-auditory effects

F. Annoyance

1. Predicting annoyance for public policy purposes
2. Metrics
3. Criteria
4. Sources
5. Nonacoustics variables
6. Habituation
7. Annoyance and health
8. Summary: Annoyance

VI. Conclusions
References